高中英语语法大全

学习啦  於宝   2019-11-27 17:06:59

  英语的学习一直是围绕着语法结构来展开的,语法的学习需要不断的练习,下面是小编给大家带来的高中英语语法大全,希望能够帮助到大家!

       高中英语语法大全

  第1章 主谓一致

  一.概念:

  主谓一致是指:

  1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。

  2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

  3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,

  一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。例如:

  There is much water in the thermos.

  但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

  Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

  二.相关知识点精讲

  1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,例如:

  Readingand writing are very important. 读写很重要。

  注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例如:

  The ironand steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。

  典型例题

  The Leaguesecretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.

  A. is  B. was C. are  D. were

  答案B. 注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

  2. 主谓一致中的靠近原则

  1)当therebe 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如:

  There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。

  There are twenty boy-students and twenty-threegirl-students in the class.班上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩。

  2)当either… or… 与neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例如:

  Either you or she is to go. 不是你去,就是她去。

  Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。

  3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致

  当主语有with, together with, like, except, but, no lessthan, as well as 等词组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如:

  Theteacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一些学生在参观工厂。

  He as wellas I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船。

  4. 谓语需用单数的情况

  1)代词each以及由every,some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含有each, every时, 谓语需用单数。例如:

  Eachof us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。

  There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。

  2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。例如:

  TheArabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。

  3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。例如:

  Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期来做准备。

  Tenyuan is enough. 十元够了。

  5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数

  1)代词what, which, who, none, some,any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例如:

  All is right. 一切顺利。

  All are present. 人都到齐了。

  2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew,crowd, class, company, committee等词后,谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时强调该集体的整体。例如:

  His family isn't very large. 他家成员不多。

  His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。

  但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。例如:

  Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗?

  3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。例如:

  Anumber of +名词复数+复数动词。

  Thenumber of +名词复数+单数动词。

  Anumber of books have lent out.

  Themajority of the students like English.

  6.与后接名词或代词保持一致的情况

  1)用halfof, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of 等引起主语时,谓语动词通常与of后面的名词/代词保持一致。例如:

  Mostof his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱化在书上了。

  Most of the students are taking an active part insports. 大部分学生积极参与体育运动。

  2)用a portion of, a seriesof, a pile of, a panel of 等引起主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如: A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事故。

  A pile of lots was set beside the hearth. 炉边有一堆木柴。

  3)如many a 或 more than one 所修饰的短语作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例如:

  Manya person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书。

  Morethan 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生来自这个城市。

  第2章 动词的时态

  一. 概念:

  时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有16种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时,过去完成时,英在完成时和现在完成进行时.

  二.相关知识点精讲

  1.一般现在时的用法

  1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。时间状语:every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday。例如:

  I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

  2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如:

  Theearth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

  Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

  3) 表示格言或警句。例如:

  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

  注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

  例:Columbusproved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

  4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如:

  Idon't want so much. 我不要那么多。

  Annwrites good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

  比较:NowI put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子。

  I am doing myhomework now. 我正在做功课。

  第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

  2. 一般过去时的用法

  1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday,last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。例如:

  Where didyou go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

  2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:

  When I wasa child, I often played football in the street. 我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。

  Whenever the Browns went during their visit, theywere given a warm welcome.

  那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎。

  3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了" "该……了"。例如:It is timefor you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。

  It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了" ,例如It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

  would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如:I'drather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。

  4)wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

  比较:Christinewas an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)

  Christine hasbeen an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)

  Mrs. Darby livedin Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

  Mrs. Darby has lived inKentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

  注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

  1)动词want, hope, wonder, think,intend 等。例如:

  Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗?

  I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。

  2)情态动词 could, would。例如:

  Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?

  3.一般将来时

  1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。例如:

  Whichparagraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢?

  Will yoube at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?

  2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

  a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:What are you going to dotomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢?

  b. 计划,安排要发生的事。例如:The play is going to beproduced next month。这出戏下月开播。

  c. 有迹象要发生的事。例如:Look at the dark clouds, there isgoing to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了。

  3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:

  Weare to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

  4)  be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。例如:

  Heis about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

  注意:be about to do 不能与tomorrow,next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

  4. 一般现在时表将来

  1)下列动词come,go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

  The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

  When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

  2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:

  Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

  There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

  3)在时间或条件句中。例如:

  When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

  I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

  4)在动词hope, take care that, make surethat等的宾语从句中。例如:

  I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。

  Make sure that the windows are closed before youleave the room. 离开房间前,务必把窗户关了。

  5. 用现在进行时表示将来

  下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如:

  I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

  Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

  6. 现在完成时

  现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成:have (has) +过去分词。

  7. 比较一般过去时与现在完成时

  1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

  2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

  一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, inOctober, just now等,皆为具体的时间状语。

  现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet,till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语。

  共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。

  3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live,teach, learn, work, study, know.。

  一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die,finish, become, get married等。例如:

  I saw this filmyesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

  I have seenthis film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

  Why did you getup so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

  Who hasn'thanded in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)

  He has been inthe League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

  He has been aLeague member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)

  句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

  (错)Tomhas written a letter to his parents last night.

  (对)Tomwrote a letter to his parents last night.

  8. 用于现在完成时的句型

  1)It is the first / second time....that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

  It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

  This is the first time (that) I'veheard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

  注意:It was the third time that theboy had been late.

  2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。例如:

  This is the best film that I've (ever)seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。

  9.过去完成时

  1) 概念:表示过去的过去

  ----|----------|--------|---->其构成是had+过去分词构成。

  那时以前  那时  现在

  2) 用法

  a. 在told,said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:

  She said (that)she hadnever been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。

  b. 状语从句

  在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般

  过去时。例如:

  When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。

  c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。例如:

  We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

  3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until ,when, after, once, as soon as。例如:

  He said that hehad learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。

  By the time hewas twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。

  Tom wasdisappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

  汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。

  10. 用一般过去时代替过去完成时

  1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。例如:

  When shesaw the mouse,she screamed. 她看到老鼠,就叫了起来。

  My auntgave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了。

  2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完

  成时。例如:

  When Iheard the news, I was very excited.

  3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。例如:

  Ourteacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

  11.将来完成时

  1) 构成will have done

  2) 概念

  a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。例如:

  They will havebeen married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。

  b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如:

  You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.明天此时,你已经到达上海了

  12现在进行时

  现在进行时的基本用法:

  a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:

  Weare waiting for you. 我们正在等你。

  b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

  Mr.Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

  c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。例如:

  Theleaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

  It'sgetting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

  d. 与always,constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:

  You arealways changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

  13. 过去进行时

  1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

  2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动作发生。

  3) 常用的时间状语有this morning, the wholemorning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。例如:

  My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle andhurt himself.  我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受了伤。

  It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。

  When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun wasshining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。

  14. 将来进行时

  1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如:

  She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。

  I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。

  注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说I'll be having a talk with her.

  2)常用的时间状语有soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, bythis time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢。

  15. 一般现在时代替一般将来时

  When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by thetime, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment,the minute, the day, the year, immediately等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:

  Heis going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

  16. 一般现在时代替一般过去时

  1 ) "书上说","报纸上说"等。例如:

  The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。

  2) 叙述往事,使其生动。例如:

  Napoleon's army now advances and the great battlebegins.拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进,大战开始了

  17. 一般现在时代替现在完成时

  1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时,如hear, tell,learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember等。例如:

  I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦。

  I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 我忘了他多大了。

  2) 用句型 " It is … since…"代替"Ithas been … since …"。例如:

  It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来,五年过去了。

  18. 一般现在时代替现在进行时。

  在Herecomes…/There goes…等句型里,用一般现在时代替现在进行时。例如:

  There goesthe bell. 铃响了。

  19. 现在进行时代替将来时

  1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。例如:

  Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗?

  We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。

  2) 渐变动词,如get, run, grow, become,begin以及瞬间动词die等。例如:

  He is dying. 他要死了。

  20.时态一致

  1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实,则用现在时。例如:

  At thattime, people did not know that the earth moves. 那时,人们不知道地球是动的。

  He told melast week that he is eighteen. 上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。

  2) 宾语从句中的,助动词ought, need,must, dare 的时态是不变的。例如:

  He thoughtthat I need not tell you the truth. 他认为我不必告诉你真相。

  第三章 动词的语态

  一.概念:

  动词的语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语之间语法或语义的关系.英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态.主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者.被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者.主动语态的构成方式与动词时态相同,而被动语态由 助动词be+过去分词 构成,有人称,数,时态的变化.

  一. 相关知识点精讲

  1. let 的用法

  1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。

  例如:

  They let the strange go.他们放陌生人走了。

  ---> The strange was let go.

  2)当let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。例如:

  The nurse let me go to see my classmate in thehospital. 那护士让我去探望住院的同学。

  ----> I was allowed / permitted to see myclassmate in the hospital.

  2.短语动词的被动语态

  短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如:

  My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾。

  Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。

  3. 表示"据说"或"相信"的词组,基本上由believe, consider, declare, expect, feel ,report, say, see, suppose, think, understand等组成。例如:

  It is said that…   据说

  It is reportedthat… 据报道

  It is believedthat… 大家相信

  It is hopedthat… 大家希望

  It is wellknown that… 众所周知

  It is thoughtthat… 大家认为

  It is suggestedthat… 据建议

  It is takengranted that…  被视为当然

  It has beendecided that… 大家决定

  It must beremember that… 务必记住的是

  4. 不用被动语态的情况

  1) 不及物动词或不及物动词短语,如appear, die disappear, end(vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain,sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, loseheart, take place等没有无被动语态。例如:

  After thefire, very little remained of my house. 大火过后,我家烧得所剩无几。

  比较:rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。

  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。

  2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语,如fit, have, hold,marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake handswith, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。例如:

  Thiskey just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只配这把锁。

  Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你说的与我们听说的一致。

  3) 系动词无被动语态,如appear, be become, fall, feel,get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn等。例如:It sounds good. 听上去不错。

  4) 带同源宾语的及物动词如die/death,dream/dream, live/life等,以及反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态。例如:

  She dreamed abad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个恶梦。

  5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。例如:

  (对) She likes to swim.

  (错) To swim is liked by her.

  5. 主动形式表示被动意义

  1)wash, clean, cook, iron,look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等。例如:

  The book sells well.  这本书销路好。

  This knife cuts easily.  这刀子很好用。

  2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build等。例如:

  I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了,我该受指责。

  Much work remains. 还有许多活要干。

  3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。例如:

  The door needs repairing.= The door needs to berepaired. 门该修了。

  This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

  4)特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己)等。例如:

  Explain itclearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些,让别人理解你的话。

  6. 被动形式表示主动意义,如 be determined, be pleased, begraduated (from), be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get married等。例如:

  He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。

  注意:表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或getmarried to sb.均可。例如:

  He married a rich girl. 他与一个富妞结婚了。

  He got married to a rich girl.

  7.need/want/require/worth

  当 need, want, require, be worth后面接doing时,表示的是被动意义。例如:

  Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。

  The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。

  第四章 动词的语气

  一.概念

  语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所处的状态持有的态度或看法.

  二.相关知识点精讲

  1.辨别if 引导真实条件句和if引导的虚拟条件句的区别

  If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he hastime and will go with us.

  If he had time, he would go with us.=But in fact hehas no time.

  2.虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表

  if条件句中的谓与动词

  主句的谓与动词

  与现在的事实相反

  1. 行为动词用did 形式

  2. be动词用were

  should

  would

  could + 动词原形

  might

  与过去的事实相反

  had + done

  should

  would

  could + have + done

  might

  与将来的事实相反

  1. 行为动词用did

  2. should + 动词原形

  3. were to + 动词原形

  should

  would

  could + 动词原形

  might

  与将来的事实相反

  1. 行为动词用did

  2. should + 动词原形

  3. were to + 动词原形

  should

  would

  could + 动词原形

  might

  3.混合时间的虚拟语气

  如果条件句中的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生,主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别根据各自所表示的时间加以调整。

  1)0If I had received the passport yesterday, I wouldstart today.

  2)If he had telephoned me last night, I would seehim now.

  3)If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be all rightnow.

  4)If China had not been liberated, the workingpeople would still be leading a miserable life.

  4.should/could / might/ ought to + have done 表示“过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做”

  needn’thave done 表示“过去没必要作而实际上做了”

  5.虚拟语气中的倒装句

  如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有were, had, could, should,有时可将if省去,而将条件从句的主语置于were, had, should, could 之后。

  Had you invited us, we would have come to yourparty.

  Were I you, I would do more practice after class.

  Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so.

  6.wish后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气,表示“可惜…;….就好了; 悔不该…; 但愿…。”

  主句谓语

  从句谓语

  wish

  时态

  谓语动词的形式

  现在时

  表示与wish同时发生

  动词用过去时

  be动词用were

  过去时

  表示在wish之前发生的动作

  动词用had done

  be用had been

  将来时

  表示在wish之后发生的动作

  动词用would do; should do

  be 用 would be ; should be

  1)I wish I knew the key to the answer.

  2)I wish I were ten years younger.

  3)I wish that I had gone to the football match lastweek.

  4)I wish that you had been here yesterday.

  5)He wishes that we would visit the old school.

  7.表示命令或建议动词suggest,insist, propose, desire, demand, request, order, command 后的宾语从句中应使用虚拟 should +动词原形; should 不可用would 来替代; 主句所使用的动词时态不限。

  8.suggest 为“建议去做…; 命令…”从句用should + do

  为“ 说明; 暗示”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。

  1) The doctor suggested that I should take themedicine three times a day.

  2) The doctorsuggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold.

  9.insist“坚持要去做…,坚持应该去做”,从句用should + do为“坚持表明,坚持说/解释”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。

  10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中,表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句的主语通常是suggestion, proposal, request, order, idea 等。表语从句中的谓语动词是should +动词原型,should 可以省略。

  11.在主语从句中,当从句用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜等,从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形式。其谓语动词时should + 动词原型, 或should 省略。

  第5章 助动词

  一.概念:

  助动词是帮助主要动词构成各种时态,语态,语气以及否定或疑问结构的动词.助动词分为时态助动词和结构助动词两种.

  二.相关知识点精讲:

  1. 助动词be的用法

  1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:

  They are havinga meeting. 他们正在开会。

  English isbecoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

  2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:

  The window wasbroken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。

  English istaught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

  3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:

  a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如:

  He is togo to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。

  We are toteach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。

  说明:这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。

  b. 表示命令。例如:

  You areto explain this. 对此你要做出解释。

  He is tocome to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。

  c. 征求意见。例如:

  How am Ito answer him? 我该怎样答复他?

  Who is togo there? 谁该去那儿呢?

  d. 表示相约、商定。例如:

  We are tomeet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。

  2. 助动词have的用法

  1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态。例如:

  Hehas left for London. 他已去了伦敦。

  Bythe end of last month, they had finished half of their work.  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

  2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如:

  I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

  3)have +been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如:

  English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。

  3.助动词do 的用法

  1)构成一般疑问句。例如:

  Doyou want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?

  Didyou study German? 你们学过德语吗?

  2)do + not 构成否定句。例如:

  I donot want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。

  Hedoesn't like to study.  他不想学习。

  Inthe past, many students did not know the importance of English.

  过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

  3) 构成否定祈使句。例如:

  Don't go there. 不要去那里。

  Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。

  说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

  4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如:

  Docome to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。

  Idid go there. 我确实去那儿了。

  I domiss you. 我确实想你。

  5)用于倒装句。例如:

  Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。

  Onlywhen we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。

  说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

  6)用作代动词。例如:

  ----Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?

  ----Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)

  Heknows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧?

  4. 助动词shall和will的用法

  shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如:

  I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。

  He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

  说明:在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will只用于第二、第三人称。现

  39/229

  在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

  He shallcome. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)

  He willcome. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)

  5.助动词should, would的用法

  1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称。例如:

  Itelephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

  比较:"What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。

  可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。

  2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。例如:

  He saidhe would come.  他说他要来。

  比较:"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了He said he would come。原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。

  6. 短语动词

  动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如:

  Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turnoff是短语动词)

  短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:

  1)动词+副词,如:blackout;

  2)动词+介词,如:lookinto;

  3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词

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